In addition, the authors were cautious about the cumulative effect of continuous and large doses of EPO. of time spent in the ICU, the time from operation to discharge, and the SRT 1720 total time of hospitalization were recorded. Adverse events in the ICU were monitored and recorded. Results EPO significantly decreased the level of TNF- and IL-1, but improved the level of IL-10 after CPB. EPO significantly improved pulmonary ventilated function and gas exchange function after CPB. EPO significantly shortened the mechanical air flow time and stay in the ICU. Conclusions Preoperative EPO injection reduced lung injury and advertised lung function in individuals who underwent CPB. The safety effect of EPO may be associated with inhibition of inflammatory response. valuevalue /th /thead Time of air flow in ICU (hours)27.15.418.72.470.004Time of stay in ICU (hours)32.26.423.55.10.018Time from end of surgery to discharge (days)13.93.818.104.22.168Length of hospital stay (days)24.97.523.83.60.088The number of patients who needed additional oxygen over at least 24 hours150 0.001 Open in a separate window The data are presented as meanSD. EPO C erythropoietin; ICU C Intensive Care Unit; SD C standard deviation. There were 15 individuals in the saline group who needed additional oxygen over at least 24 hours to maintain ideal oxygenation. Compared with the saline group, significantly fewer individuals needed additional oxygen ( em P /em 0.05) (Table 4). There were no individuals who needed non-invasive ventilator assistance in the ward ( em P /em 0.05). Compared to baseline, the concentration of TNF-, IL-1, and IL-10 were upregulated after sternum closure in the 2 2 organizations ( em P /em 0.05) (Figure 2). Compared with the saline group, the TNF- and IL-1 were significantly lower, but the IL-10 was significantly higher in the EPO group ( em P /em 0.05) (Figure 2). Open in a separate window Number 2 Cytokine concentrations in the serum in 2 organizations. The levels of serum (A) TNF-, (B) IL-1, and (C) IL-10 in individual individuals were identified. Data are indicated as the mean and SD of each group (n=27). ? and ? represent the saline and EPO group, respectively. * em P /em 0.05 compared with saline group. TNF C tumor necrosis element; IL C interleukin; SD C standard deviations; EOP C erythropoietin. None of the individuals developed polycythemia before incision, after sternal closure, or at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, or 72 hours postoperatively. Furthermore, none of the individuals developed the respiratory adverse complications including lung illness, atelectasis, or pneumonia as determined by telephone follow-up at one month, 2 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Conversation In this medical trial, we found that the SRT 1720 preoperative injection of EPO could significantly improve pulmonary function, reduced systemic swelling, and shortened mechanical ventilation time and ICU stay. Although material and medical technology have improved, the postoperative pulmonary injury induced by CPB continues to be a severe complication and influences postoperative recovery. Postoperative lung injury is the main attributed to the severe swelling induced by CPB, lung ischemia-reperfusion injury [2,14]. In this study, we found that EPO improved the respiratory mechanics after CPB. During CPB, contact of blood with the CPB blood circulation tube activates the inflammatory cell liberating lots of inflammatory factors . These SRT 1720 inflammatory Rabbit polyclonal to ADPRHL1 factors can directly damage endothelial cells. The hurt cells launch chemoattractants and exacerbate swelling. Moreover, during CPB the 2 2 lungs only receive less than a 5% supply of blood. The lung ischemia-reperfusion injury also contributes to lung swelling . The lung swelling prospects to an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability and deteriorates lung compliance, raises airway resistance and then aggravates alveolar gas exchange [15,17]. Our study results suggested that prophylactic EPO improved lung compliance, improved gas exchange function, and reduced lung airway pressure. We speculated the improvement effect of EPO on pulmonary function might also become attributed to anti-inflammation effect [18,19]. Contrary to the experimental expectation, there was a noted reduction in the PaO2/FiO2 percentage for the study individuals in the EPO group between 48 hours and 72 hours (Table 3), although both the values were within the normal suitable PaO2/FiO2 range. The reason behind the fluctuation could be that SRT 1720 48 hours after the operation, the SRT 1720 effectiveness of prophylactic intravenous administration of 100 IU/kg of EPO in the EPO group gradually subsided, and its effect of inhibiting inflammatory lung injury gradually decreased, which led to the fluctuation of respiratory parameters, especially PaO2/FiO2.