Those who accepted treatment were given a 500-ml plastic container with lid and soap and were instructed to provide the first whole stool sample within 24 hours after treatment

Those who accepted treatment were given a 500-ml plastic container with lid and soap and were instructed to provide the first whole stool sample within 24 hours after treatment. pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig populace every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs given birth to during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0C30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7C25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41C0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08C0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. Author Summary is usually a Calcipotriol zoonotic parasite which infects humans and pigs resulting in the cysticercosis/taeniasis duo of neglected tropical diseases. It is usually commonly known as the pork Calcipotriol tapeworm. Infection of the human brain with this parasite causes up to a third of epilepsy in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Contamination of pigs is usually Calcipotriol a food-safety issue, as consumption of contaminated pork results in intestinal tapeworm contamination in humans who GP5 may then transmit the parasite to others. Pig contamination also results in economic harm to small landowners who cannot sell the contaminated pork. Despite increasing worldwide attention to these diseases, sustainable and effective control strategies have been elusive. One possible approach is usually to direct limited screening and treatment resources to specific subpopulations which have the highest risk of contamination. In this study we found that screening for intestinal tapeworms among people who live nearby a heavily-infected pig reduced transmission of the parasite in the overall community by 40% over one year. This practical strategy could be implemented as a potentially sustainable community-based intervention in the poor rural regions of world where the disease is usually endemic. Introduction eggs in their feces. Pigs acquire the larval stage of contamination in their tissues, a disease called cysticercosis, by consuming human feces made up of eggs. Ingested tapeworm eggs release oncospheres that invade the intestinal wall and disseminate through the bloodstream to form cysts throughout the body. The lifecycle completes when a human consumes pork contaminated by larval cysts, as these may then develop into adult egg-producing intestinal tapeworms. This lifecycle occurs primarily in regions lacking sanitary infrastructure where pigs are allowed to roam and access raw sewage. Open in a separate window Physique 1 Lifecycle of are needed to reduce the burden of neurologic disease in affected areas. Treatment of taeniasis is an important component of control strategies, as this stage of contamination is the direct cause of cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. However, identifying taeniasis in the community is usually hard because people with adult-stage intestinal contamination rarely have symptoms [10]. In addition, laboratory methods with adequate sensitivity for detecting taeniasis are not available in most endemic regions. Mass presumptive chemotherapy in a single round with niclosamide or praziquantel has been attempted to control transmission in multiple countries [11]C[14]. This Calcipotriol strategy may temporarily decrease the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and human taeniasis but transmission rapidly earnings to baseline levels if underlying risk factors remain unchanged [14]. Incomplete participation with treatment, imperfect efficacy of single-dose regimens and migration of new tapeworm service providers into treated areas ensures that prolonged cases of taeniasis can maintain transmission [15]. An additional drawback is usually that mass interventions may not be appropriate to control taeniasis given the relatively low prevalence (typically 2C3%) in endemic areas. Mass.