This not only opens new avenues for investigation but also speaks to the potential utility of this assay as an initial screen to identify factors behind tumor cell invasiveness toward the marrow adipocytes

This not only opens new avenues for investigation but also speaks to the potential utility of this assay as an initial screen to identify factors behind tumor cell invasiveness toward the marrow adipocytes. as a source of growth factors, chemokines, and lipid mediators (10, 11). Specifically, they have been shown to (1) upregulate lipid transporters and drive lipid uptake by tumor cells (5), (2) promote osteoclast differentiation and maturation (4, 9), and (3) induce authophagy-driven tumor cell survival, all processes that ultimately allow the metastatic cancers to thrive in the bone marrow niche (8). Despite these emerging KB-R7943 mesylate data clearly pointing to marrow fat cells as one of the critical determinants of tumor cell fate in bone, their functional contribution to the growth and aggressiveness of metastatic tumors in bone is not well understood. Studies investigating the interactions between the tumor cells and adipocytes in the bone marrow have been limited and thorough mechanistic evaluations on how fat cells affect the phenotype, metabolism, and function of the surrounding cells in the metastatic niche are lacking. The majority of the studies examining adipocyteCtumor cell interactions to date have utilized pre-adipocyte cell lines or adipocytes derived from visceral or breast adipose tissues (12C16) depots, which are known to be distinctively different from bone marrow fat (17). There have only been a handful of studies, including our own, that have examined the interactions of bone marrow mesenchymal cell-derived or primary KB-R7943 mesylate bone adipocytes with metastatic tumor cells (4, 5, 7C9). Although all of these investigations resulted in important findings linking marrow adipocytes with metastatic progression, the caveat is that they have all been performed using two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches. It is becoming increasingly recognized that 2D layer cultures, although convenient and reasonably inexpensive, do not adequately mimic the limited diffusion-driven access to nutrients, growth factors, and signaling molecules in KB-R7943 mesylate the tumor microenvironment (18). Under physiological conditions, exposure of solid tumors to microenvironmental factors, such as oxygen, nutrients, stress, and therapeutic treatments, is heterogeneous and regulated by their three-dimensional (3D) spatial conformation (19). The importance of employing 3D models to model tumor architecture has proven critical to understanding the mechanisms behind tumor phenotype, behavior, and response to therapy LPA antibody (19C22). Emphasis has also grown on considering the contribution of host cells in the tumor microenvironment to cancer progression, and various models that focus on stromalCepithelial interactions and immune cell involvement have emerged (21, 23C27). Three-dimensional, multi-cellular cell culture models have become well-accepted tools for dissecting complex molecular mechanisms of tumor progression that may not be possible to dissect system designed to evaluate bone marrow adipose colonization by breast cancer cells (6), there have been no 3D models that consider involvement of marrow adipocytes. Here, we describe new approaches KB-R7943 mesylate designed to study the interaction of prostate cancer cells with bone marrow-derived adipocytes. Our methods employ murine bone marrow mesenchymal cells differentiated into adipocytes in 3D collagen I gel and grown in a Transwell system with 3D-cultures of prostate carcinoma cells. We show that in this system, which allows continuous exchange of factors between the two cell types, adipocytes promote 3D growth of tumor spheroids. We also demonstrate that the cell culture approaches we are employing in this model allow for easy manipulation and are suitable for imunocytochemical analyses. We show examples of immunofluorescence analyses of metabolism-associated factors, such as carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) that reveal distinctively different expression profiles between 2D and 3D cultures exposed to adipocytes. We also demonstrate the suitability of our model KB-R7943 mesylate to study proteolysis by live prostate carcinoma cells and potentially other components of bone marrow microenvironment, such as bone marrow macrophages. Finally, we also describe a design of a 3D invasion assay that allows direct monitoring of the attraction of prostate tumor cells to marrow adipocytes and can be utilized to evaluate potential inhibitors that target this.