Data are presented as mean SD. panels) and spleen (bottom panels) from WT and pe mice. Cells were left untreated or infected with non-flagellin expressing STm for 6 h to induce cell maturation and prevent cell death. C. Representative dot-plots showing percentage of CCR7+ CD103+ (top left panels) and CCR7+ CD11c+ (bottom left panels), or CD86+ CD40+ (right panels) cells. D. Data from three impartial experiments presented as mean SD. No significant differences were detected between WT and AP-3-/- cells.(TIF) ppat.1006785.s001.tif (2.0M) GUID:?0D897247-498B-452E-B465-8EE2183D463F S2 Fig: Serum IL-18 correlates with bacterial load in pearl mice 5 days after sublethal Typhimurium infection (related to Fig 3). WT and pearl (pe) mice were infected orally with 108 STm (+ STm) or treated with PBS as a control (na?ve), and analyzed five days after contamination. A. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and serum was isolated and assayed for IL-18 by ELISA. Data are pooled from three impartial experiments and expressed as pg IL-18/ ml serum. B-D. Supernatants from homogenized and pelleted MLN were assayed for IL-18 (B), IL-1 (C) and IL-17 (D) in one experiment. Dotted lines, background signal threshold from uninfected mice; solid lines, mean value. *p<0.05; n.s., not significant.(TIF) ppat.1006785.s002.tif (859K) GUID:?B8AA5250-AFDB-44A4-B7B2-61EC966B0D69 S3 Fig: Inflammasome activation is impaired in AP-3-deficient dendritic cells but not macrophages (related to Fig 4). A. BMDCs (DCs) or BMMs (Ms) from WT and pearl (pe) mice were infected with STm at a MOI of EDNRA 10:1. Cell supernatants collected after 4 h were assayed for IL-1 by ELISA. (B-D) WT and pearl (pe) mice were infected intranasally with 5 106 or received PBS as control (na?ve). B. Lung homogenates were plated to measure bacterial load, expressed as CFU/ g of lung. (C, D). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was assayed for TNF (D) or IL-18 (E) by ELISA. (B-D). Dotted lines, background (threshold values from uninfected mice); solid lines, geometric mean (B), or arithmetic mean (C, D) of values above background. ***p<0.001; n.s., not significant.(TIF) ppat.1006785.s003.tif (462K) GUID:?811D7A0E-E514-4CDE-88EB-078544B2128A S4 Fig: AP-3 does not affect phagosomal TLR signaling in Ms (related to Fig 4). BMDCs (A, C, E) or BMMs (B, D, F) were incubated for 3 h with LPS-coated or TAPI-2 uncoated latex beads, and TNF (A, B), IL-6 (C, D) and IL-12p40 (E, F) were measured in cell supernatants by ELISA. Data from three impartial experiments are normalized to LPS-coated bead-treated WT cells as 100% and represented as mean SD. ***p<0.001.(TIF) ppat.1006785.s004.tif (1.2M) GUID:?63C2D8E5-A8F1-426C-9CD5-EA6D62DB641F S5 Fig: AP-3 is required for perinuclear inflammasome positioning in response to multiple stimuli in DCs and Ms. (related to Fig 5). WT and pearl (pe) BMDCs (A-C) or BMMs (D, E) expressing ASC-GFP were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. A. Representative images of uninfected BMDCs. B. BMDCs were infected with mCherry-STm and cells were analyzed at the indicated times after contamination. ASC specks were quantified in 20 cells per cell type in each of three impartial experiments. Data are presented as mean SD. No significant differences between WT and pearl cells were observed. C-E. BMDCs (C) or BMMs (D, E) were primed with LPS for 3 h and stimulated with ATP for 30 min (C Typhimurium (STm) and other particulate stimuli specifically in DCs. AP-3-deficient DCs, but not macrophages, hyposecrete IL-1 and IL-18 in response to particulate stimuli or Typhimurium [15, 16, 17]. Thus, signaling from maturing phagosomes could potentially limit the duration of inflammasome activation through autophagy. How this is integrated at the molecular TAPI-2 level is largely unknown. We TAPI-2 have shown that in murine DCs, adaptor protein-3 (AP-3)Can endosomal adaptor protein complex that facilitates cargo sorting into transport vesiclesCoptimizes the recruitment of TLRs from endosomes to maturing phagosomes and is.